10 Facts About Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)


1.


On August 15, 1969, the 23rd anniversary of India's independence, the ISRO was established under Vikram Sarabhai's supervision and superseded INCOSPAR. He is also considered to be the father of the Indian space program.


2.


ISRO's first satellite was named Aryabhata in honor of an astronomer and mathematician named Aryabhata. Using the Kosmos-3M launch vehicle, the satellite was launched from Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia in 1975.


This satellite was designed to conduct experiments in X-ray astronomy, study the upper atmosphere, and study solar physics.


3. India's first rocket (launch vehicle) was the SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle-3) developed by ISRO. This launch was unsuccessful. The first successful launch occurred on 18 July 1980.

SLV-3 was a four-stage rocket capable of launching 40 kilograms of payload into low Earth orbit. It weighed around 17 tonnes and had a height of 22 metres.


4.In the year 2022, ISRO’s budget is around $1.8 billion compared to $22 billion of NASA and $11 billion of CNSA (China National Space Administration). ISRO is ranked number 7 in the world in terms of the annual budget. Despite the lower budget, ISRO is doing a commendable job with quite impressive missions.


5. ISRO is the first space agency to carry 100+ satellites in the orbit. On February 15, 2017, ISRO successfully launches and deploy 104 satellites in sun-synchronous orbits. ISRO used the PSLV-C37 launch vehicle to carry out this mission. It was a record until Falcon 9 rocket carried 143 satellites into orbit on 24 January 2021.


6.


Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as Maangalyaan is ISRO and India’s first interplanetary mission carried out using PSLV-XL C25 rocket from the first launchpad Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Andhra pradesh.

The mission was launched on 5 November 2013 and on 24 September 2014 ISRO successfully inserted the orbiter into Mars orbit. It took 298 days for the successful Orbital insertion. The overall cost of the mission was just $74 million, which is quite impressive.

ISRO is the fourth space agency to orbit Mars and the first space agency to complete on 1st attempt. Its mission objective was to study morphology, topography, and mineralogy, Martian upper atmosphere, effects of solar wind and radiation, etc.

7. Chandrayaan 1 was the first lunar probe by ISRO, launched on 22 October 2008 and successfully inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008. The mission carried an orbiter with some scientific instruments.

The mission was launched using a PSLV-XL C11 rocket from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. This mission played an important role in the discovery of water on the lunar surface.

While Chandrayaan 2 was the second lunar mission by ISRO comprised of a Lunar orbiter, lander, rover to explore the moon’s south polar region. The mission was carried out using a GSLV Mark III M1 rocket and launched on 22 July 2019.

The mission was to explore the south polar region of the moon but sadly on 6 September 2019, the lander during its landing stage diverged from its intended trajectory and crashed.


8. ISRO is planning to launch its first manned mission to space, named Gaganyaan. The mission was originally planned to launch on December 2021 but delayed to not earlier than 2023. To prepare for this mission, ISRO is setting up an astronaut training center in Bangalore.


9. Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System, also known as NavIC, an independent local navigation satellite system being developed by India. The system provides accurate position and navigation to users in India and can extend up to 1500 km from India’s boundary.

The project was developed and operated by ISRO and the constellation of the navigation system consists of 7 active satellites primarily used for commercial and military purposes.


10. ISRO is planning to launch various Earth observation satellites in the near future. The agency is also planning to launch a space station, and probes like Aditya-L1 to study the sun’s corona, Shukrayaan 1 to study Venus, Mangaalyaan 2 with a rover, and lander, etc.